An article on the BBC News website caught my attention this weekend, “Short bursts of intense exercise ‘better for weight loss‘”. The article went on to quote Dr Michael Moseley (whose articles I often feature in this blog), “In 2012, I tested three lots of 20-second high intensity workouts on an exercise bike, three times a week. My insulin sensitivity improved by 24%. In the programme, we again saw very impressive results with younger, unfit people …”
Committed Metafit fans will know that just three sessions of this HIIT workout a week can effect similar impressive changes to your body over a short space of time, using just simple core and bodyweight exercises. So what is it about these that make them so effective?
What are bodyweight exercises?
They are strength training exercises that use your own body’s weight to provide resistance against gravity. Bodyweight exercises can enhance a range of abilities including strength, power, endurance, speed, flexibility, coordination and balance. Exercises that use pushing, pulling, squatting, bending, twisting and balancing, such as press ups, burpees and squat thrusts are common bodyweight exercises. Those of you who are old enough to remember the “Superstars” programmes of the 70s and 80s will no doubt remember the infamous gym challenges involving squat thrusts and the parallel bar dips – two examples of tough but effective bodyweight exercises.
Did you know? One of the best things about bodyweight exercises is that you can do them in your own home as no other equipment is required.
What are the best bodyweight exercises?
There are many variations on standard bodyweight exercises, many of which we use in our metafit workouts, often introducing a jump or lateral movement to make the move more plyometric and harder, but the core group of exercises remains the same. Here’s “Mr Metafit” himself demonstrating just how some of these should be performed:
Squats and squat jumps. This exercise works all of the muscles in the lower body including the quads, glutes and hamstrings. It also provides an extra kick for the core as you need your deep abdominal muscles and back to keep your torso upright and perform this exercise correctly.
Press-ups. Working all the muscles in the lower body including the quads, glutes and hamstrings whilst also providing an extra kick for your core strength. Metafit press-ups use the full range of movement – your chest should touch the floor as shown below. It’s perfectly acceptable to drop to your knees to perform this move, just ensure you are still using the full range of movement to be effective.
Burpees. Yes, our favourite exercise! Combining cardio and strength into one, the burpee is a complex, total-body exercise that will work your upper and lower body at the same time with a strong focus on the core. (That’s why we love them so much!). Adding a tuck jump at the end makes the move more plyometric and even tougher!
Squat thrusts. Similar in many ways to a shortened burpee without the final jump phase, this tough and oft hated exercise (I wonder why?!) is a good all-body move, concentrating primarily on your hamstrings, quadriceps and glutes. This exercise is often poorly performed so it’s important to work on correcting your technique to ensure you gain the maximum benefit.
Lunges and lunge jumps. Again, often incorrectly performed, a true lunge should take the back leg to a 90° position, just off the floor. It targets the quadriceps and the glutes most intensely, but also hits the hamstrings, calves and core. Technique is important here as poorly performed lunges can lead to injury. Stepping lunges are just as beneficial if you prefer to take out the jump or if you have knee issues.
Mountain climbers. This exercise combines the difficulty of a plank with deep core stabilisation and alternating knee drives towards your chest. It benefits muscular and cardiovascular fitness by increasing strength, flexibility and blood circulation. Mountain climbers require you to engage your upper arm muscles, as well as your core and your legs.
Extended plank hold and plank variation. One of the best exercises for core conditioning, improving posture, supporting your back, enhancing overall movement and co-ordination and toning your abdominals. In addition to standard planks in Metafit, we also use “hot hands” and “pomel jumps” as great and effective variations on this core exercise.
Hot hands. With a strong core, you should be able to perform these as still and as SLOWLY as possible, almost like you are in slow-motion. This exercise is actually much tougher than it looks, and if your core isn’t strong you will find you tend to rotate throughout the body, particularly the hips, when you lift your hands – this is what you must aim to try and avoid.
It goes without saying that good technique is imperative to complete all these exercises well - it will not only help to prevent any injury or issues developing but also ensure you gain the maximum benefit from the exercise. There is no substitution for performing these exercises under the guidance of a qualified instructor - it's almost impossible for a beginner to be aware of their technique without proper instruction and correction.
Want to find out more and experience the whole range of bodyweight exercises? Why not come and join us for a Metafit session and discover how just 25 minutes can change the way you think about exercise? It could also change your life!
Welcome to 2019 – it’s that time of year again! Are you looking for extra motivation to reach a particular goal? Perhaps you simply don’t like the gym environment? Or you need support coming back to exercise after a long break?
Whatever your current physical condition, fitness levels or personal goals, one-to-one sessions with a dedicated personal trainer can help you to focus on the things that matter:
To set realistic but challenging goals,
To track your physical progress,
To improve your health and wellbeing,
Increase your energy levels,
Change your body composition,
Discover extra motivation and confidence.
Personal training is about breaking the barriers to help you actively achieve your personal goals, and beyond. Here are some of the different ways a Personal Trainer can help you to win your fitness battles:
1. A constant point of contact
A Personal Trainer will provide a constant point of contact to motivate, inspire and support you. Whatever your questions, goals or concerns, your trainer will provide an educated and qualified answer to help you move forward successfully whenever you need them. Having a PT is a great way to make sure you get out the door in the first place! Most people feel more of a sense of responsibility if they have booked an appointment with a PT.
2. A tailored and evolving programme
Your Personal Trainer will create a unique programme that you can follow either with them or on your own. Your PT should consider your lifestyle, any injuries you may have or any concerns before developing a programme to suit your life.
You can reassess your programme at any time if you feel like you’re getting bored or you’d like to challenge yourself more.
3. Exercising using the correct technique
In metafit we have a mantra – quality of exercise not the quantity – technique wins over every time. How you perform exercises can have a huge effect on how effective that exercise is and also on your safety. The worst thing you can do is copy what other people are doing – they may be performing exercises specific to their own requirements that don’t match with your own. Whilst it may look easy to copy what someone else is doing at the gym or on a video, it’s also easy to develop poor technique and that is something that I work hard to avoid with all my clients.
A Personal Trainer will set a programme that is tailored to you and attend training sessions with you to provide guidance and ensure that you are able to perform the exercises correctly.
4. Clever motivation
People often struggle with motivation after the first few weeks in a gym but a Personal Trainer will help you set achievable goals for each stage of your training.
One of the most common mistakes people make is setting their overall goal without also setting smaller incremental and achievable targets along the way. Achieving these smaller targets will spur you on as you continue your training and will make you more likely to succeed. If one of your goals is to run your first marathon, for example, you might want to focus first on running a 5k, then 10k, then 15k etc.
Your Personal Trainer will be able to break down your goals and monitor your progress along the way, offering helpful and constructive advice if you’re falling behind and giving you praise and encouragement when you’re doing well.
For more information on personal training and your individual needs and expectations, please do contact me for a chat. I offer one-to-one personal training sessions for all clients no matter what your current fitness levels are.
As the festive season is well and truly upon us, it goes without saying that most of us, even with the best of intentions, will end up over-indulging on food and drink. So in anticipation of the new years’ “rush” I thought I’d finish the year with a fitness training article. Here’s the lowdown on the body’s aerobic and anaerobic energy systems – what they are, how they work and which is best way to workout for you. Merry Christmas everyone!
Aerobic and anaerobic are simply terms used to describe how the cells within the body produce energy and refer to energy systems. Every movement we make requires energy to be created and there are three main ways that this is done: one with oxygen – aerobic, and two without oxygen – anaerobic.
Aerobic refers to the body producing energy with the use of oxygen. Continuous steady state exercise is performed aerobically. When it comes to aerobic exercise, you would usually think of spending anywhere from 20-90 minutes performing an exercise – this could be on an exercise bike, treadmill or cross trainer or even simply walking and jogging.
The aerobic energy system utilises fats, carbohydrates and sometimes proteins to produce adenosine triphosphate (known as ATP – see my earlier blog post on EPOC here) for energy use. It produces far more ATP than either of the anaerobic energy systems but at a much slower rate, therefore it cannot fuel intense exercise (such as HIIT) that demands the fast production of ATP.
Anaerobic refers to the body producing energy without oxygen. This is typically exercise that is performed at a higher intensity. There are two ways that the body can produce energy anaerobically:
The ATP-PC system, which consists of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PC). This provides immediate energy through the breakdown of these stored high energy phosphates. If this energy system is ‘fully stocked’ it will provide energy for maximal intensity short duration exercise for around 10-15 seconds. It provides you with the most power because it produces ATP more quickly than any other system. Because of this it fuels all very high intensity activities but it burns out very quickly. (See also my earlier blog post on EPOC here).
The Anaerobic Glycolytic system produces a lot of power, but not quite as much or as quickly as the ATP-PC system. However it has larger fuel supplies (essentially a bigger fuel tank) and doesn’t burn all its fuel as quickly as the ATP-PC system, nor does it fatigue as quickly. It is the anaerobic glycolytic system that is associated with the feeling of burning in your muscles due to the build-up of lactate and other metabolites.
Which is the best?
During exercise, energy will be derived from all three of these systems, but the emphasis will change depending on the intensity of the exercise relative to your fitness levels.
Aerobic vs anaerobic training refers to which energy system you are trying to improve during your training session - its structure and intensity will be very different depending on which one you are trying to improve.
Aerobic training will typically fall in the range of 60 – 80% of your estimated maximum heart rate and can be performed continuously for prolonged periods of time. Anaerobic training will fall between 80 – 90% of your estimated maximum heart rate.
Aerobic training is good for building endurance and improving your cardiovascular and respiratory function. This means that your heart and lungs become stronger and more efficient, enabling you to train harder and longer as your fitness levels improve.
Anaerobic training is performed at a harder intensity than aerobic exercise, typically between 80 – 90% of your maximum heart rate. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass. Muscle energy systems trained using anaerobic exercise develop differently compared to aerobic exercise, leading to greater performance in short duration high intensity activities. It is a great way of really improving your fitness levels once a baseline aerobic level of fitness is achieved.
Have a wonderful Christmas, try not to eat too much, and look forward to a fit and healthy you in the new year!
As a fitness instructor I have a responsibility to all my class participants to provide a safe workout environment and to avoid injury wherever possible. Quite often I might hear “lunges are bad for my knees!” and similar comments about other exercises. Sound familiar? It’s a common reason people avoid exercises like running or weight training or some fitness classes. But this assumption that exercise damages your joints has been found to be false. In fact, studies conducted over the past decade have shown that exercise helps to both BUILD healthy cartilage and to build SUPPORT around the joints, keeping them stronger for longer.
Building strong cartilage in your joints
Arthritis happens when the cartilage that cushions your joints wears away leaving bone rubbing on bone, which causes pain and discomfort. This isn’t the result of exercise, but of injury and constant low-level damage over time. Research has shown that exercise can actually reinforce cartilage.
Your joints are surrounded by a thin piece of tissue connected to your blood supply called the synovial membrane. This membrane produces the fluid that lubricates your joints. Cartilage has no independent blood supply, so instead, it gets its nutrients from this fluid. When exercising your blood pumps faster around your body, providing the membrane with a plentiful supply of nutrients which are infused into the fluid. What’s more, running and other high-impact exercises, have been shown to force this nutrient-rich fluid into the cartilage, keeping it healthy.
NOTE: Of course, if you already suffer from joint pain, high-impact exercises that aggravate this pain should be avoided, at least in the short term, but there’s plenty of exercises that I can show you that will help to build strength in your joints.
Muscles and ligaments – your joints’ support network
Your knees, hips and other joints rely on a supportive network of muscles and ligaments to keep them sturdy. So exercises that build these muscles and strengthen the ligaments will strengthen your joints, making you less prone to injury in the long run.
Strength training uses weight to gradually build muscle tone. If you’re new to exercise, you should begin with bodyweight exercises, working your way onto weight machines, which provide stability while you train, and then move onto free weights such as kettlebells or dumbbells.
It’s worthwhile asking a personal trainer for advice, particularly if you have specific injuries or conditions.
How exercise can relieve pain in the joints
An added benefit of exercise is it can help to prevent and relieve pain in your joints. Building strength in your joints can help improve your posture and prevent a cascade of injuries as a result, and the more you move, the less stiff and fatigued you’ll feel.
Exercise can also affect your mental outlook, flooding your brain’s receptors with ‘feel good’ endorphins which both make you feel happier and change your perception of pain. You might find that you’re more motivated and that pain becomes more manageable after exercise.
Exercises to strengthen and mobilise joints
It’s tempting to give up on exercise when you experience pain in your joints. After all, you don’t want to make it feel worse. Here’s a great workout from Stephen Macconville, the Joint Pain Programme Director at Nuffield Health that is clinically devised for use by people with joint pain. These six basic exercises each have a progression and a regression (18 exercises in total), to suit your individual level of fitness.
Feel free to contact me for more details of workouts that will suit you. I offer personal training and one-to-one sessions where we can build a tailor made workout that is perfect for you.
Love love love this article from Metafit Australia and simply had to share! There are many people who seem to think that back to back so-called High Intensity workouts are the best way to up their fitness and strength, but that’s simply not the case. Discover why the short sharp intense Metafit workout is one of the best ways to deliver a true HIIT workout …
Most people who claim they do high-intensity interval training often focus more on the ‘interval’ part than on the ‘high intensity’ part. Let’s get one thing straight – there’s nothing wrong with regular interval training. You do the exercise for a period of time, then rest and repeat the exercise again, thus forming intervals that are great for your heart health, circulation, and overall conditioning. But doing exercises with high intensity is where the magic happens.
Most people are drawn to HIIT because it’s short and it’s a type of cardio that doesn’t require any equipment at all to have a good total body workout. The question is, how do you know you’re doing HIIT right? Well doing HIIT on your own is very difficult and most people will never achieve the right intensity so a much more effective way is it under the guidance of a qualified Metafit coach or personal trainer.
What qualifies as high intensity?
After each interval, you should be out of breath, drenched, and thinking to yourself “Thank God it’s rest time, I couldn’t go on any longer”. Your body will treat that rest time as a quick recovery, giving you the chance to steady your breath and gather just enough energy to perform the next interval. To illustrate how hard you have to work in those short intervals (that usually last anywhere from 15 to 45 seconds), it’s worth noting that some researchers doubt that the general population could successfully adapt to the extreme nature of HIIT. However, in Metafit we challenge that belief. The general population can absolutely achieve the right intensity (90% + MHR) with expert coaching, correct programming (exercises, work to rest, duration) and determination.
Don’t underestimate the rest periods
This is such an important thing to note because people usually think that if they push themselves harder and harder with no breaks whatsoever, they will somehow achieve better results. Wrong! The rest periods are what makes HIIT work! In order to really perform at your maximum intensity, you have to give your body a chance to recover! If you just go on doing something so extreme for long, your body will slowly decrease the energy levels, which can lead to serious injuries and won’t help your fitness goals in the long run. The whole point of the rest period is to allow your body to tap into the energy supplies it has, and ‘produce’ the amount of energy you need for your next interval. Without that break, you’re not giving your body a chance to regroup and prepare itself for the hard part. Remember, it’s called high-intensity interval training, and not just high-intensity training for a reason. By going through those high cardio – low cardio intervals, you’re making the most out of your workout, whether the goal is to lose fat, increase explosiveness, or simply improve your general health.
Longer is not necessarily better
Now that we’ve established that your workout should be rough and leave you breathless and sweaty, there’s another aspect of this exercise regimen you should take into account when planning your workout – it’s length. If you’re really making your body go through intense energy bursts where you’re giving it your all, it’s impossible to perform those intervals for longer periods of time. There isn’t a professional athlete in the world that could or would want to do HIIT for an hour. You’ll come across various 45, 60, or even 80-minute ‘HIIT’ workouts on the internet that deserve a healthy amount of suspicion, to say the least.
The ideal length you should go for is anywhere between 6 and 25 minutes, no more. If you do it right, you’ll give your body an excellent, fat-torching routine that will leave you feeling energised and oh so alive! The easiest way to choose the optimal length is to simply listen to your body and find what feels good for you.
Which exercises to choose
It’s not only the way you do it but what you do that counts. You should aim for bodyweight, explosive, full body moves that simultaneously engage most of the main muscle groups in your body to get an optimal result. Giving the limiting length of the intervals, it’s hard to imagine an average person being completely out of breath by the time they finish 20 seconds of squat pulses, triceps dips or crunches. Try doing burpees, squat jumps and sprints movements and you’ll see that you’ll pretty much max out at about 20 seconds or so.
You might think that your typical HIIT workout focuses too much on the lower body, but don’t be fooled; one, quads and glutes are the largest muscles in the body, therefore they will burn the most calories when being trained, and two, in order to do a high-intensity burpee or jumping lunge the right way, you need to activate your core to keep you balanced and safe. Don’t worry, you’ll be doing a total body routine, without even noticing it or focusing on specific abs or arm exercises. That’s the beauty of HIIT.
Less is MORE
Falling in love with HIIT is easy. It’s quick, effective, and the results start to show fast – really, really fast. You might love it so much, in fact, that you’ll find yourself trying to fit the fourth or even fifth HIIT in your week, in order to achieve even faster results. Don’t do it! Aim for 2 or 3 HIIT workouts per week, max. Even just one quality HIIT workout per week will do wonders for your athletic performance. Your body needs time to recover properly; you should cherish it and work with it, not against it. Feel free to do some weight lifting, yoga, pilates or light, steady-paced cardio on your off-days. This will compliment your HIIT routine perfectly, and keep you safe from injuries and stress. If you overwork your body, it will likely recover slower than usual, causing you to have less energy to begin with, so you won’t be able to make your intervals intense and brutal, which will render your whole HIIT routine useless, not to mention the probable muscle tears and Achilles tendinitis that often go along with lower performance.
In the end, HIIT will make you appreciate what your body can do as well as boost your overall health and wellbeing, as long as you do it right. Ready, set, HIIT!
Metafit is an absolute gem of a workout and is one of my all-time favourites. It's simply one of the quickest ways to visibly improve your fitness and strength. I am fully certified to teach both the standard Metafit workout and also the circuits based MetaPWR workout.
Burn fat in your sleep with Metafit! The 30-minute class that lasts 24 hours! The HIIT workout that keeps on working! These are just some of the claims that Metafit loves to make but what exactly do they mean and are they true?
I love Metafit. It’s by far my favourite workout. In under 30 minutes you can have an intense workout that burns fat, boosts metabolism and improves strength, speed and cardiovascular fitness. It is one of the quickest ways to improve your overall fitness and for beginners, if you’re committed and work hard three times a week, you can easily start to see real results within 6-8 weeks. So what is it about this short workout that makes it so successful?
The answer is simple: EPOC.
Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption (also referred to as the “afterburn” effect) is an increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity. Essentially, our body uses more oxygen after exercise than before exercise, and we expend more calories during our recovery from exercise than we do before exercise, even at rest. EPOC is the amount of oxygen required to restore your body to its normal resting metabolic function called homeostasis.
Your metabolism is how your body converts the nutrients you consume in your diet to adenosine triphosphate (or ATP), the fuel your body uses for muscular activity.
Here are seven important points about EPOC and how it can help you achieve optimal levels of calorie burning from your workouts:
1. During the immediate post-exercise recovery period, oxygen is used for the following functions:
Production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to replace the ATP used during the workout,
Re-synthesis of muscle glycogen from lactate,
Restore oxygen levels in venous blood, skeletal muscle blood and myoglobin,
Work with protein for the repair of muscle tissue damaged tissue during the workout,
Restore body temperature to resting levels.
2. Exercise that consumes more oxygen burns more calories.
The body expends approximately five calories of energy to consume one litre of oxygen. (A calorie is the amount of energy required to heat one litre of water to 1°C). Therefore, increasing the amount of oxygen consumed both during and after a workout, can increase the amount of net calories burned.
3. Circuit training and heavy resistance training with short rest intervals = a significant EPOC effect.
Strength training with compound, multi-joint weightlifting exercises or a weightlifting circuit that alternates between upper and lower-body movements places a greater demand on the involved muscles for ATP from the anaerobic pathways. Increased need for anaerobic ATP also creates a greater demand on the aerobic system to replenish that ATP during the rest intervals and the post-exercise recovery process. Heavy training loads or shorter recovery intervals increase the demand on the anaerobic energy pathways during exercise, which yields a greater EPOC effect during the post-exercise recovery period.
4. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is the most effective way to stimulate the EPOC effect.
The body is most efficient at producing ATP through aerobic metabolism, however at higher intensities when energy is needed immediately, the anaerobic pathways can provide the necessary ATP much more quickly. This is why we can only sustain high-intensity activity for a brief period of time – we simply run out of energy. HIIT works because during high-intensity exercise, ATP is produced by the anaerobic pathways – once that ATP is exhausted, it is necessary to allow it to be replenished. The rest interval or active-recovery period during an anaerobic workout allows aerobic metabolism to produce and replace ATP in the involved muscles. The oxygen deficit is the difference between the volume of oxygen consumed during exercise and the amount that would be consumed if energy demands were met through only the aerobic energy pathway.
5. EPOC is influenced by the intensity, NOT the duration of exercise.
Higher intensities require ATP from anaerobic pathways. If the ATP required to exercise at a particular intensity was not obtained aerobically, it must come from the anaerobic pathways. During EPOC, the body uses oxygen to restore muscle glycogen and rebuild muscle proteins damaged during exercise. Even after a HIIT workout is over, the body will continue to use the aerobic energy pathway to replace the ATP consumed during the workout, thus enhancing the EPOC effect.
6. Research has shown that resistance training can provide a greater EPOC effect than running at a steady speed.
One study found that when aerobic cycling, circuit weight training and heavy resistance exercise were compared, heavy resistance exercise produced the biggest EPOC.
7. The EPOC effect from a HIIT or high-intensity strength-training workout can add 6-15% of the total energy cost of the exercise session.
High-intensity workouts require more energy from the anaerobic pathways and can generate a greater EPOC effect, leading to extended post-exercise energy expenditure. Heavy weight training and HIIT workouts appear to be superior to steady-state running or lower-intensity circuit training in creating EPOC.
Watch Metafit’s Justin Corcoran (below) demonstrate the correct technique for the exercises in the May 2018 “10 Lashes” workout:
Increasing the intensity of your workouts will produce results.
It is important to remember that it is the intensity of your workout that produces the results. There is some debate about the significance of the EPOC effect for the average exercise participant because the high-intensity exercise required for EPOC can be extremely challenging. However, if you want results and are up for the challenge, increasing the intensity of your workouts by using heavier weights, shorter rest intervals or high-intensity cardio intervals may be worth the effort. While HIIT or heavy resistance training is effective and beneficial, remember to allow at least 48 hours of recovery time between high-intensity exercise sessions and try to limit yourself to no more than three strenuous workouts per week.
Thanks to the American Council on Exercise.
At the end of every Metafit session you should feel exhausted and be unable to hold a conversation for a minute or two.
If you are able to carry out a conversation during your workout you are not pushing yourself hard enough and you are unlikely to reach EPOC.
It’s important to get your technique right and it is better to use the regressive form of each exercise if you are struggling to maintain technique. Poor technique = less benefit and more likelihood of injury.
Think “slow and controlled” for your core exercises, particularly hot hands and hot knees.
That voice that says “I can’t do it” is the very same voice that says “I can do it!” Your mind will tell you “I can’t continue!” but if you push yourself a little further each time you will see that your body is perfectly capable of doing additional reps. Keep going no matter what – remember each interval is usually no more than 25 seconds.
If you are finding an exercise easy, then progress your technique by adding a jump or a tuck jump (for instance, adding a tuck jump after a burpee). Please ask me and I can show you progressions on all your exercises.
Metafit should never get easier – the fitter you become, the harder you can push yourself.
Our bodies use two main types of fuel: fat and carbohydrates – and early indications from Dr Collins’s study suggest that we could increase the amount of fat we burn just by timing when we eat with when we exercise. I was interested to discover more – like many others I had thought that exercising on an empty stomach was the way to go, but now that school of thought appears to be changing.
Michael Moseley’s team from the BBC programme “Trust Me I’m a Doctor” worked with Dr Collins on an experiment to see if it might be possible to change our eating habits around exercise to increase the amount of fat our bodies are burning throughout the day. Here are the results of that experiment:
Experiment 1: The laboratory test
Adam’s initial experiment had shown that for young men, eating carbohydrates (CHO) before exercise significantly decreased the amount of fat their bodies were burning for the 3 hours afterwards, whilst they were resting (n=10, p = 0.02, Wilcoxon matched pair tests, repeated measures 2-way ANOVA, multiple t-tests).
When he did a similar experiment with both men and women, he and his team found that whilst the men still burned less fat if they had eaten carbohydrates before exercising (n=7, p<0.05), the women burned MORE fat if they had eaten carbohydrates before exercising (n=8, p<0.05).
* Significantly different between genders: p≤0.05;
† Significantly different between treatments: p≤0.05
This experiment was repeated on a single brother and sister pair, Jess and Josh, and got similar results.
Jess and Josh results:
Experiment 2: The long term effect
In order to see whether this effect measured in the laboratory could actually be significant in the real world, “Trust Me I’m a Doctor” teamed up with Adam and his research group to recruit 30 volunteers to take part in a longer term experiment.
Thirteen men and seventeen women who did not normally do a lot of exercise we chosen and for four weeks they all took part in three supervised classes a week: high intensity training, Zumba and Spin classes.
All participants had a drink both before and after each exercise class, but one of their drinks was a placebo (with no calories), whilst the other was a carefully calorie-controlled hit of carbohydrate. No one knew who was taking which drink or when.
Seven of the men were taking the carbohydrate drink before exercising, whilst six were taking it afterwards.
Seven of the women were taking the carbohydrate drink before exercising, whilst ten were taking it afterwards.
At the beginning and end of the experiment, they were tested on how much fat they were burning whilst at rest (as well as a range of other measures such as weight, waist circumference and blood sugar/fat levels).
Whilst all the women ended up burning slightly more fat at the end of the experiment, those who were taking carbohydrates before their exercise were burning more.
Difference between men and women:
Meanwhile, all the men were actually burning slightly less fat at the end of the experiment, but those who were taking carbohydrates after their exercise were better off. We saw no significant differences in their weights or waist circumference, but their blood sugar levels changed in the same way as their fat burning.
Difference between men and women:
How it works
Men and women burn fat and carbohydrate in different ways.
Men are very much ‘carbohydrate burners’ – if as a man you eat carbohydrate then your body is going to burn it rather than fat. Just giving the men carbohydrate at any time in our experiment made them burn a bit less fat! However, given that we all have to eat (and carbohydrate is an important part of our food), it is better for men to eat after exercising if they want to burn fat. This is because after exercise, men will use that carbohydrate to replace the carbohydrate in their muscles rather than burn it for fuel and will continue to burn fat instead.
For women, the results clearly show that eating before they exercise is better than eating after if they want to burn fat. Women’s bodies tend to burn fat more easily than men’s, and are not fuelled so much by carbohydrate. Moreover, women are much better at conserving carbohydrate during exercise. So when women eat carbohydrate soon after exercise, this is effectively overloading them with fuel, and interferes with the body’s ability to burn fat.
The amount of carbohydrate in our tests is probably the equivalent of a piece of toast, or a small bowl of cereal – and for men ‘not eating before exercise’ means about 90 minutes before exercise, and for women ‘not eating after exercise’ similarly means for about 90 minutes after.
Although our study was quite small, put together with the evidence from the laboratory experiments, it does seem worth us all making that simple adjustment to when we eat in order to maximise the amount of fat that our bodies burn throughout the day.
So what do you think? These studies are always interesting and I would like to see more work in this area as there does seem to be a lot of conflicting advice available on the internet today.